My Top 5 Black Fridays – in chronological order.

920x920

Photo: Archives, 1960, The Chronicle

 

PS There is a theme. Can you spot it?

1.  Friday 18th November 1910.
300 suffragettes from  Women’s Social and Political Union protested at Prime Minister Henry Asquith’s decision to shelve the Conciliation Bill, which would have extended the vote to about 1,000,000 land-owning women in Britain. They were met by 6,000 police who responded violently.
http://practicalfeminism.wordpress.com/2010/11/18/remembering-black-friday-18th-november-1910/

2. Friday, 31 January 1919
After World War I, a shop steward meeting of members of the Clyde Workers Committee drew up a demand for a 40 hour working week. The strike began on Monday and on the Friday, workers began to assemble in George Square in the morning. Thousands of police launched a baton charge on the crowd which was repelled by the strikers.  Lloyd George ordered 10,000 armed troops with tank support into the city and by the evening Glasgow was occupied.
http://www.redflag.org.uk/articles/art005.html

3. Friday October 5th 1945
10,000 workers from the Conference of Studio Unions, who represented manual labourers who worked in Hollywood had begun a strike in May 1945 when the jurisdiction of their body wasn’t recognised in pay negotiations by a group of producers. A fight broke on this day between strikers and strikebreakers who had turned up for work armed with hammers and nightsticks.
http://utpress.utexas.edu/index.php/books/horcla

4. Friday May 13, 1960,
On the second day of meetings of the House Subcommittee on Un-American Activities at San Francisco City Hall, students from Berkeley and Stanford held a major demonstration – the first in decades – outside. Police turned a firehose on the protesting students and 64 of them were arrested. One was tried for hitting a police officer with his own club but there was no conviction. The event led directly to the foundation of the Free Speech Movement in Berkeley in 1964 and the final demise of the Subcommittee.
http://www.sfgate.com/news/article/Black-Friday-birth-of-U-S-protest-movement-3188770.php

5. Friday 8 September 1978
This event effectively marks the beginning of the end of the Shah’s rule in Iran. When a large crowd attempt to gather in Jaleh Square in Tehran to demonstrate ostensibly for religious reasons, they did so in opposition to a recent declaration of martial law. By now you can guess what happened next. The soldiers ordered the crowd to disperse. The order was ignored. The military opened fire, killing and wounding several hundred people.

 

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About cosmopolitanscum

Journalist, writer, commentator, blogging about architecture, urbanism and design from a humanist perspective.
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